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Diario de Oaxaca

SketchbookA Sketchbook Journal of Two Years in Mexico: A Review
By Ernesto Aguilar
Political Media Review

Ostensibly about the recent political strife in the Mexican state, Diario de Oaxaca will likely be far better known for its gorgeous visuals and packaging as a diary, complete with ribbon bookmark. The book, with bilingual versions of the story under the same cover, tells the story of artist Peter Kuper’s life in the community there. However, this book is much more than that.

The 2006 skirmishes and associated campaigns against the Ruiz Administration in Oaxaca are central to Diario de Oaxaca‘s story. The author traveled to Mexico in hopes of breaking away from North American political conflicts as Bush-era crimes continued to mount, and instead found himself in the middle of a mass movement. The document is a first-person account of the tumult from an observer’s standpoint. The historical roots of grievances, the day-to-day impact on Mexicans’ lives, and the determination for a better world are all presented here with compassion and humor. Though clearly partisan, Kuper is hardly an ideologue in the most doctrinaire sense. Stories of Oaxacan forests and bugs dot a theme of resistance, the environment an allegory for the tussle between the powerless and politicians. To hear Kuper tell a story told in dozens of international press writings, Diario de Oaxaca is far more vivid a tale than one might expect, as more than just communities organizing for their survival, but the many unique, creative ways such efforts pop up.

If you are familiar with the teacher’s strike, repression and uprising that is the underlying subject of Diario de Oaxaca, what is likely to keep your attention is Kuper’s fantastic artwork, where everything from drawings of protests and stenciled posters to insects and building interiors grace dozens of colorful pages. Lovingly translated, readers can follow the typeset-style text in English or Spanish. At a time when so many publishers are playing it safe, PM Press takes a tremendous risk offering up what must be a costly item to print at an affordable rate to consumers. Nevertheless, the stunning volume is a treat for readers.

Unexplored in this and many writings on Oaxaca is a complete discourse on why the movement failed. Anarchist sensibilities seized on groups like APPO and the Oaxaca struggle as examples of organizing from below. While arguable at best, such a discourse ignores an important fact: though winning some moral victories, creating the political climate to necessitate the movement’s central demand, Ruiz’s resignation, never happened. Such is largely because organizers could not spark a mass movement that connected with the demand and united around it. Though approached in books like Teaching Rebellion, why it did not happen remains unresolved. Kuper appropriately lionizes the social moment itself in Diario de Oaxaca, but understanding where the movement went wrong remains elusive. As a result, like Kuper’s book, Oaxaca’s struggle is beautiful but ultimately stands as a look at a lost opportunity.

To be clear, Diario de Oaxaca is not an organizer’s manual by any stretch, and expecting a full exchange on movement strategy is perhaps too heady. Still, one cannot but help but wonder what could have been.

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Abolish Restaurants: An Interview with Prole

What Would Happen if Restaurants Were Abolished?
The crew at Prole.info have a vision...
by Mickey Z
PlanetGreen.com
August 9, 2010

Full disclosure: PM Press published my pamphlet, Self Defense for Radicals: A to Z Guide for Subversive Struggle.

PM's latest pamphlet, Abolish Restaurants: A Worker's Critique of the Food Service Industry from Prole.info, has called "a beautifully illustrated guide to the daily misery, stress, boredom, and alienation of restaurant work, as well as the ways in which restaurant workers fight against it. Drawing on a range of anti-capitalist ideas as well as a heaping plate of personal experience, it is part analysis and part call-to-arms."

What is/Who is Prole.info?

Prole.info is a website and here's how they describe it:

"For those who aren't up on how the kids these days are talking, "prole" is a shortened form of "proletarian." Proletarian is a word used by Karl Marx to describe the working class in a capitalist society. We are the people who have no property we can make money off of so we have to look for wage labor—a miserable, and alienating situation that creates a tendency to struggle. So basically, the website is information for angry workers. It was originally set up by two people several years ago as an archive of some interesting communist and anarchist texts, and since then, it has been a place for me to put up my analysis, critiques, manifestos, drawings, etc."

My Conversation With Prole.info


Planet Green: The most common complaints about restaurants relate to price or cleanliness or service. Your critique takes a much different approach. Can you sum it up briefly?

Prole.info: Abolish Restaurants is not primarily a critique of restaurants. It is a critique of capitalism in one specific place: restaurants. A similar critique could be written about most workplaces. The point is to show how the everyday shit that your average worker has to go through is not just someone's bad luck.

The stress of the dinner rush, the fights with co-workers, the split shifts, the lousy tippers, the aching backs, the shit from the boss... it is not just random individual misfortune. It is a functional and necessary part of a larger system that creates similar conditions everywhere. It's business as usual. And just as importantly, the alliances that are made between workers fighting against these conditions point in the direction of what could be a larger subversive force. Capitalist society is built on class struggle and Abolish Restaurants is trying to put forward the perspective of one side in that struggle.

PG: I really like the idea of debunking the "bad luck" myth. The oil spill in the Gulf is not bad luck. The rising extinction rate is not bad luck. People's unhappiness with their jobs and finances is not, as you say, "random individual misfortune." What do you see as a path towards more people recognizing this and then, of course, doing something about it?

Prole.info: I'm skeptical of the approach that people need to recognize something or see something clearly and then they will start trying to change things. People's consciousness is a very contradictory thing...even people who have very well-thought out political views on things. In most workplaces I've ever worked, everyone steals from work. At the same time, the people stealing from work, if asked, would probably say that of course they're for private property and are likely to be in favor of harsher sentences for people caught stealing. The point is that I DON'T think that "consciousness raising" does much of anything.

PG: So, in your view, how can change occur?

Prole.info: I think the starting point of a radical critique has to be self-interest. Being working class means struggling, even if it's just struggling to survive. Just standing up for our own interests brings us into conflict with capital. Your average wage worker has any number of problems that are the same as everyone in their workplace and similar to those that workers have all over the world. By fighting together, against the boss, we can begin to see each other as allies. The stronger the struggle, the more we will see as possible. Of course, we need to put forward our ideas in the clearest and most coherent way we can, and argue for them strongly, but much more important than that is to make concrete contributions to the struggles that happen in our workplaces, neighborhoods, cities, etc.

PG: What led you to write specifically about restaurants in this pamphlet?

Prole.info: When I wrote Abolish Restaurants, I had been working in restaurants for years. I wanted to write something that would hopefully resonate with the experience of other restaurant workers. But also writing about my workplace helped me get my own ideas clear in my head.

PG: Do you think with the current economic downturn and a growing sense of one's carbon footprint, this is the ideal time for readers to truly hear the roots of your critique and act more on their class interests than in chasing manufactured needs and wants?

Prole.info: I don't really think there's a right and a wrong time for critique, as if there are right ideas waiting out there for conditions to latch on to them. I think the ideas that we come up with reflect our own experiences and those are influenced by the times. Economic downturns are bad, real wages fall, jobs are hard to find, life is tough. But it's just a different kind of miserableness. During the height of the boom, most proles are working long hours, at stressful, boring, repetitive jobs, and giving most of our money over to the landlord or the bank for a mortgage. An economic downturn where people are losing their houses or their jobs could lead to people asking fundamental questions about the economy. It could just as easily lead to people longing for their shitty jobs back, or fighting with each other. The important thing is not to take an individualist or a moral approach to things. You can't oppose "good" jobs to "bad" unemployment, "good" green energy to "bad" greenhouse gas creating energy, "good" fair-trade, organic, free-range food to "bad" sweatshop, pesticide-filled, factory-farmed food. Capitalism is not a malicious bad guy. The capitalist economy produces for a profit and therefore produces whatever is profitable. No amount leftist moralizing or individual lifestyle changes can change that. The only thing that is a real threat to the system is a class movement—working people coming together, fighting for our interests, refusing to work, blocking the flows of commodities, fighting the powers that hold this society together and finding other ways to produce and live collectively.

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Mud Hut Doc Inspiring to Watch

Reno Gazette
March 26, 2010

The DVD documentary "First Earth: Uncompromising Ecological Architecture" from PM Press isn't just inspiring, it makes you think you could actually build a house.

It starts with the premise that when oil goes away (as all finite resources must), people are going to have to know how to build shelter using the materials on hand. Then it sprinkles in factoids such as that half -- half! -- of the world's population lives in homes made of mud.

Your first reaction might be either "What about earthquakes?" or "A mud hut sounds depressing." But then director David Sheen takes you around the world to see what mud architecture has to offer.

For instance, in the Pacific Northwest, one building made from mud and straw -- a technique called "cob" -- is seismically tested and found to withstand a quake three times larger than the largest temblor believed possible there. And even then the building didn't collapse so people could've gotten out safely.

Or you go to Yemen where an entire city is made from mud, with dozens of seven- and nine-story buildings, not to mention an elaborate palace. Or you go to the United Kingdom and see a ritzy $2 million mud home. Many of these buildings have lasted centuries, and you see people building their own curvy custom homes and you think, "I could do that!"

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Eleanor Arnason: A Fresh New Voice of Science Fiction

Seattle Times
By Nisi Shawl
July 24, 2010

 


In the field of science fiction, small independent presses are willing to take chances when it comes to supporting fresh, original work. Seattle Times science fiction reviewer Nisi Shawl rounds up three: "Redemption in Indigo" by Karen Lord; "Mammoths of the Great Plains" by Eleanor Arnason; and "The Loving Dead" by Amelia Beamer.

The contest between small independent presses and huge media conglomerates could be won because the little guys are able to take big chances. In science fiction and fantasy, at least, they're willing and eager to publish minorities and women, and wonderfully fresh debut novels like Karen Lord's "Redemption in Indigo" (Small Beer Press, 200 pp., $16).

Lord is a well-traveled native of Barbados with a University of Toronto science degree. Using a Senegalese folktale the way a composer uses a musical theme — as a basis for variation — she recounts the fantastical adventures of Paama, who escapes her unfortunate marriage only to be placed in unwitting charge of awesome universal powers.

An enchanted kitchen implement allows Paama to bring the slightest probabilities to pass. At first unconscious of this ability, she rescues a drowning boy and resurrects a plague victim from the dead. Gradually the "undying ones" (known to Paama's people as "djombi") teach her how the branching implications of her interference lead to consequences a mere human woman could never foresee. Full of sharp insights and humorous asides ("I know your complaint already. You are saying, how do two grown men begin to see talking spiders after only three glasses of spice spirit?"), "Redemption" extends the Caribbean Island storyteller's art into the 21st century and hopefully, beyond.

Another risk-taking enterprise, PM Press' "Outspoken Authors" series, presents "Mammoths of the Great Plains" (PM Press, 128 pp., $12). But this is not Eleanor Arnason's first book. A veteran writer of feminist SF, Arnason here creates an alternate history in which woolly mammoths coexist with Native American tribes well into modern times. Some are captured by the Ringling Brothers Circus, others by zoos. One herd becomes a Glacier National Park tourist attraction; the last few survivors die in the 1950s, along with the last guardians of Indians' oral history.

Lakota biologist Liza Ivanoff follows in her grandmother's footsteps when she creates a living cloned mammoth from tissues her foremother kept cryogenically preserved. The cloning project is funded by casino monies, and the same monies sponsor murals by an Indian artist. Eventually the idyllic scenes the murals depict become reality: eagles fly over undammed rivers where mammoth herds wade in restored bliss. Pointing up the political message of her fiction, PM Press also includes in this short book an essay by Arnason on the importance of "Writing Science Fiction During World War Three," and an in-depth interview on her life and activism.

Amelia Beamer's "The Loving Dead" (Night Shade Books, 240 pp., $14.95) is riskiness of the risqué sort. Trader Joe's employee Kate encounters her first zombie when she helps her belly-dance instructor fend off the amorous advances of a stranger. Soon the instructor succumbs to zombieism herself — but not before she and Kate make love, excited by pheromones the zombie plague releases at onset.

This sexually transmitted disease, which also turns its victims' tongues "the color of well-done burger"and gives them an appetite for living human flesh, soon reduces California's Bay Area to a shambles. Kate and her housemate Michael take refuge on Alcatraz Island with the help of iPhone apps and Googled research on authentic Haitian zombies. Fast-paced yet thought-provoking fun, "The Loving Dead's" popularity with both chain and independent bookstores proves that taking chances can pay off.

Seattle author Nisi Shawl is the winner of the 2009 James Tiptree Jr. Literary Award for her short-story collection "Filter House," published by Seattle-based Aqueduct Press.

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An Interview with Gary Phillips on Spinetinglermag.com

By Keith Rawson
Spinetinglermag.com

Gary Phillips is like your favorite uncle. He’s the guy with the quick joke, the great story about your mom crushing over some boy in high school, the guy pulling quarters from behind the ears of star struck toddlers wandering around family gatherings. The difference between your favorite uncle and Phillips, though, is all your uncle’s good at is barbequing, drinking beer, and being witty while he’s drunk. Where as Phillips writes some of the most earnest and engaging crime noir currently being written (and he’s probably pretty witty when he’s drunk, too).

I recently sat down with Phillips at the Poisoned Pen conference in Scottsdale, Arizona to discuss his most recent writing projects including the newest entry in Akaskic publishing’s in their long running Noir series, Orange County Noir, which he edited, his newest novel, the Underbelly, his ongoing comic book projects, and his involvement with PM press and their Switchblade imprint.


Gary Phillips interviewed by Keith Rawson from Damon Cap on Vimeo.


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Capitalist Crisis, Radical Renewal?

An Interview with Panitch, Gindin, and Albo authors of In and Out of Crisis ZNet
By Leo Panitch and Sam Gindin and Greg Albo and Sasha Lilley
July 29, 2010

Sasha Lilley: Liberals and leftists alike argue that the economic crisis was caused by a lack of state regulation over the banks and financial markets. Consequently, they conclude that we just need new regulation to keep the financial sector in line.  Why don't you think that's the case?
 
Leo Panitch: Well, the cause of the crisis was certainly related to competition in the financial sector. But that competition was to some extent the product of state regulation. The American financial system is certainly the most regulated financial system in the world, and probably in history, if you measure it in terms of the number of pieces of legislation, the number of regulatory agencies, and the massive amounts of regulation to which finance is subject.
 
So, yes, there were changes that allowed for more competition in finance, although those changes were only a matter of closing the barn door after the horse had bolted. It was already the development of finance that made the old New Deal regulations impossible. The state then removed those limits and encouraged further competition in finance. So it's just a misunderstanding of what's really going on. There's a sense that the state didn't do its job in constraining markets. And there's a confusion about what a capitalist state is. A capitalist state responds to and sponsors and facilitates markets. The notion that it's there to restrain markets, to restrain capitalism, that if only it would do that it would remove the contradictions of competition in capitalism, is simply a cockamamie way of seeing the world. Although unfortunately it's the way in which it's ideologically presented to us.
 
Sasha Lilley: Much of this may appear counter-intuitive since the dominant narrative on the left is that over the last quarter century the state has retreated and let markets run unfettered. Could you give us some concrete examples of the ways the state actually facilitates markets?
 
Leo Panitch: At the most basic level, you couldn't have contracts. You couldn't have property without all of the things that the state does in the form of law, in order to guarantee to one side of a contract, or to one capitalist to another, that their deals can be validated. So at the most basic level the state is in there.
 
But more than that, states are oriented to facilitating accumulation on their own terrain. And some of them, the imperial states like the American, are oriented to facilitating capital accumulation and the spread of markets to do that around the world. They do that in a myriad of different ways. People think the New Deal regulations were brought in to constrain finance. Yet in many ways the Glass-Steagall Act that separated commercial from investment banking, for instance, was adopted in order to stabilize finance and to nurture it back to health. Through the whole of the post-war period there was a very close corporatist relationship between the banking sector and the regulators. The regulators were oriented to nurturing finance, not only back to health, but to a new stage of development. And that's what began to happen by the 1960s.
 
Some of the old constraints that were put on the separation between commercial and investment banking then began to make less and less sense as finance was now very powerful and expansive and spreading around the world. And you got some removal of those. The big example was the 1975 New York Big Bang where New Deal price-ceilings on what brokers were allowed to charge for buying and selling stocks for people were broken down. They were mainly broken down because pension funds and other institutional investors were buying very large blocks of them and they wanted discounts.
 
Another example is the remove of Glass-Steagall, the separation of commercial and investment banking, which allowed commercial banks to be involved with derivatives and acting as brokers and selling insurance and so on. But that had already been broken down. It was never applied internationally and it had broken down domestically in the United States since the early 1980s. So it was really changing the legislation after finance had already expanded in the way it had.
 
Sasha Lilley: Coupled with the notion that deregulation is the cause of our current economic woes is a belief that finance is simply a parasite on the real economy. What you argue, however, is that although part of finance is obviously speculative, finance actually plays a crucial role for accumulation in general. Can you explain why?
 
Leo Panitch: Finance is speculative and, yes, it is very much about trying to make money by trading on money. There isn't the kind of Marxist connection between money commodities—money in the classic sense of producing a thing, a good. I think that's where the misconception comes from.
 
But no production takes place with out the provision of credit. And increasing no production takes place with out the provision of credit to consumers. And finance has been crucial to the dynamics of expanded production. Especially in terms of globalization and financing the means of integrated production right around the world.
 
So when people for instance speak of derivatives as simply speculation, there certainly is speculation involved, but you couldn't have somebody, say Wal-Mart, contracting with a supplier in China to produce something that will be on Wal-Mart shelves in the United States next winter, unless both parties were able to find financial intermediaries that would allow them to hedge the difference in the exchange rate between what the dollar and the renminbi is now and what it will be next winter. Or do the same with what transportation costs will be at that time. Or do the same with what interest rates will be at that time. So these derivatives are means of buying insurance in relation to fulfilling a contract for the delivery of things that are produced.
 
You simply couldn’t have global production with out the role that finance plays just in this respect, and I'm not even getting into the role that finance plays in terms of venture capital, which was very important in terms of the development of information and technology revolution we just lived through; for the role it plays in terms of the role it plays in terms of facilitating investment. You could do the same for the kind of role that finance plays in terms of making indebted consumers into viable consumers. And you see that through credit cards and many, many other aspects of the role that finance plays. And that even has to do with the role that finance played in housing, which led to subprime crisis. People were taking out second mortgages in order to sustain their consumption in part. Now you can go even further to look at the role that finance plays via channeling workers savings into pension funds and the role those pension funds play in investing in stock markets, investing in derivatives, and so on, which has to be traced through how that links to production.
 
It's an illusion to imagine that finance is out there in some greedy Gordon Gecko world and that is “bad capitalism,” rather than what GM does which is somehow “good capitalism” and why GM was in the tank was because of the Geckos of this world.  Not at all. This is capitalism and both productive capital, in the sense of industrial corporations or retail firms like Wal-Mart, and the big banks are part of the totality and we need to understand them in terms of the way they link with one another.
 
Sasha Lilley: Various Marxist critics have argued that the financialization of the economy is capital’s means of addressing the underlying stagnation of the “real economy,” of industry in decline. The argument goes that the current crisis is part of a long downturn starting in the 1970s and capitalism’s ill-health has been masked by a shift into profit-making through all sorts of incomprehensible derivatives and forms of speculation. You three see things quite differently. How so?
 
Sam Gindin: To elaborate a little more on what Leo was saying: part of the role of finance—once you see it in terms of capitalism—is to discipline and restructure the so-called real economy. It's been fundamental to that, imposing discipline on every factory to be more competitive or finance will go somewhere else, to reallocate capital across several sectors, venture capital, but much more generally. So finance has been fundamental to that.
 
The other way that finance has been absolutely crucial too, is to understanding capitalism in terms of its imperial dimension. It's been fundamental to capitalism actually penetrating other countries, imposing certain conditions if they want the finance, putting the United States in a position where the American state is responsible for managing capitalism more generally; and for integrating the working class—in addition to them using credit in the macro sense that it keeps the economy going—the involvement of workers in the circuits of capitalism in terms of housing and pensions and their assets rising. It’s also been a socialization of workers.
 
Now in terms of specifically the question of decline, if you leave aside looking at specific numbers for a second and just think about what's happened over the last quarter of a century, it actually looks like one of the most dynamic periods from a capitalist perspective—not from a worker perspective, but from a capitalist perspective. It's a period in which you've penetrated China. You've penetrated the former Soviet Union. You're now penetrating the enormous potential of the Indian market. You've seen a powerful commodification of things that used to be seen as part the Commons. Part of what government provides has been privatized as sources of accumulation. You've seen very radical breakthroughs in technology over this period in terms of that kind of dynamism.
 
And when you actually look at the numbers, what you do see is that profits have actually recovered from the lows that they were. They're not at the peak they were at in the 1960s, but that was a unique period. And the restructuring of the economy has been very dramatic across sectors. If you're looking at the American economy, it has restructured geographically. It has restructured in terms of what sectors are dominant right now. The importance of business services has become a very fundamental part of the economy, especially in terms of the American global role. High tech in the U.S. has grown dramatically. The U.S. has been importing a lot but it has also been exporting a lot.
 
So I don't think there's been a lot of credibility to the argument of the American economy having declined. The real problem we have is that all this restructuring has gone on and workers have basically been pretty passive victims. They've accepted this. They haven't in any way been acting as a barrier in terms of putting other social goals or social values on the agenda. And that's allowed capitalism—American capitalism in particular—to restructure at will. And it's done really well in terms of accumulation.
 
Sasha Lilley: You mentioned that finance has allowed the U.S. to play a particularly imperial role. How does the U.S. exercise its imperial hegemony, as you see it?
 
Sam Gindin: The way we've been trying to think about it is, yes, there's direct involvement in terms of occupation, there's direct involvement in terms of transforming so-called failed states when there's no other mechanism of doing this. But the crucial point about the American empire is that unlike national empires of the past, which actually carved up the world, this empire is trying to create a global capitalism and is acting on behalf of global capital and penetrating through capitalist institutions. That's the important element of this empire's penetration.
 
If more American investment is going abroad and less is in the U.S., if the U.S. share of global production is going down, that's often interpreted as a symbol of decline. But in fact what it is signifying is the spread of capitalism, its penetration into other societies, transforming social relations in those societies, transforming the states in those societies so those states actually take on responsibility for supporting global accumulation, including American accumulation within their own borders. You're creating a global capitalism within which the American state and American capital have a structural power. The structural power comes from the fact that the U.S. is still the dominant country in terms of technology. It's increasing playing a crucial role in terms of what I raised before—business services, accounting, legal consulting, engineering, and of course finance. There's more concentration of American power in finance then there is in other sectors. So it's very important not to see imperialism as being only about territorial intervention. And it’s very important to understand that this kind of empire grows through actually spreading production, in a sense sharing production globally in a particular way.
 
Sasha Lilley: Clearly, the type of economic regime of the last quarter century is now in crisis. Is the neo-liberal model, in which the U.S. was in some ways the lead player, now dead?
 
Greg Albo: I think it's very hard to claim, given the way that the crisis unfolded, that neoliberalism is over or dead. Certainly we're entering another phase of it where many of the contradictions that have been internal to neoliberalism from the beginning have compounded and are now taking on different form. One could begin, of course, with financialization and the role of financialization in neoliberalism from the beginning and financial crises being one of the elements of the developmental model of neoliberalism. And clearly the way that some of those characteristics of finance had developed in the last decade, some of the unregulated forms of collateralized debt obligations are mutating into something quite different and we're likely to see some new regulatory forms in and around many of those markets. But we're unlikely to see those markets abandoned. We can see the way that the regulatory reform issue in Congress is going forward that these aren't radical interventions in overturning the forms of financialization that have been central to neoliberalism. I think that's one contradiction or problem that has been present that is still there.
 
We see the same thing with inequalities. Wage inequalities, income inequalities, the lowering of transfers to people on welfare, and so on have been another aspect of the developmental model of neoliberalism. In many ways, that's at a crisis with the rates of unemployment higher, the rates of people on welfare are higher, and the income inequalities keep on expanding. There are some pressures from below to address those. But as a whole, without a larger political movement we can see also the way that the crisis is unfolding that that is also not fully on the agenda—it's not on the political agenda to start overturning the income distribution dynamic of neoliberalism. In fact, the way the austerity packages are moving through the various capitalist states of the world, the workers and the poor are the key people who are paying for the crisis.
 
Similarly, we can see some of the tensions in and around the balance of payment issues and current account differences. There are some tensions that have been always internal to neoliberalism between the current account surpluses of certain zones of the world and the current account deficits of other parts of the world, particularly the U.S., and there's some tension in and around that. There has also been no real route out of it as of yet, with Europe in problems and not being able to move into a major importing zone and the countries of East Asia not wanting to reverse themselves either. It's likely the situation of the current account deficit of the U.S. will be continuing and some of the asymmetries in the world payment system, those are likely to continue. So in many ways, we're definitely in another phase of neoliberalism as a result of this crisis.  Certainly, its clear that the political forces in no part of the world have been able to break out of the neoliberal political policies or the balance of power that has backed neoliberalism, that is, the way that finance and industry have supported neoliberal policies at the level of the state.
 
Sasha Lilley: So is this, then, an impasse based on a crisis of ideas on the part of elites? Or has neoliberalism still not yet run its course as a viable engine of accumulation?
 
Greg Albo: Neoliberalism is linked to a particular policy framework within capitalism towards a certain balance between the state and market, but as Leo was pointing out, not necessarily a withdrawal of the state, but the market playing the leading role in the determination of where investment is allocated and how incomes are formed. And within that general framework the ideas of neoliberalism can adapt to a new moment, particularly if there are no other political forces on the agenda, the ideas will be generated and something will come up and this model of capitalism will continue.
 
I think there's a real bankruptcy of ideas among liberals and social democrats. I think that's where the key flaw is—in the hopes that somehow state power can simply be reasserted over and finance constrained as a key way that an alternative of reform could come forward and, alongside that, an expansion of various regulatory structures. I think modern social democracy has failed not only at the political level, but also fails to understand many of the dynamics of contemporary capitalism.
 
I think the problem on the left actually is not a question of ideas as many people often put forward. I think there are many ideas on the left on how to address the crisis—from work-time reduction to various ideas about green conversion, the traditional ideas on the left on expansion of the social sector. There are many, many interesting new ideas about restructuring the state and planning. The problem really on the left is one of political and organizational capacities right now. That it is just not present, so the left really isn't on the political stage as a political force, both at the level of unions and social movements. Certainly in North America, we're nowhere near having an adequate political force that is capable of offering an alternative vision, an alternative agenda, especially being inventive about how new social forces might be organized.
 
Sasha Lilley: As you are suggesting, there’s clearly more than one route out of the crisis. How would you envisage a route that would benefit the working class? I was going to ask what route would not benefit them, but presumably that’s what we're seeing right now.
 
Greg Albo: Why don't I start with the route that is not benefiting them? Clearly, the route that is being put forward right now is that of the capitalist class and the existing states have had a complete sway in setting the agenda. The initial responses that had emerged with some strike responses, some housing occupations, have largely fallen to the side, although I'll come back to the Greek case in a second. They've had a quite wide swath to cut in setting a new agenda and they're doing this with minor reforms around regulatory structure.  Particularly, what they're managing to do is paying for the financial crisis and offloading so much of the bad debt into the state sector and the state sector's emergency response in terms of expansion are now focused on what the International Monetary Fund has called for as a decade of austerity. Meaning that transfers to the poor are to be cut back.  Public sector wages are being cut back in the order of 5-10 percent. Income transfers are being cut back. Other forms of social programs are being cut back. And this is being backed around the world by both conservative governments and social democratic governments. They've had complete opening to set that agenda.
 
There has been little response. The only response that has occurred has been in the Greek case so far, which has generated a large number of walkouts and general strikes, days of action, and in some of the other Mediterranean countries as well. But they haven't been able to push aside the move by those governments to implement these really draconian austerity packages. Right now the route out of the crisis is particularly being set by the capitalist class, in our view within the framework of neoliberalism—although neoliberalism has taken many forms, maybe we'll want to call it something different—but it was within that agenda.
 
It is very difficult to see any social democratic response at the moment emerging, that is, some alternative reflationary strategy that would have the tax burden shift more onto the capitalist class through various kinds of crises taxes or taxes on financial speculation of a major kind; not the small transaction taxes being discussed as basically a backstop for future financial crises.
 
So what you're left with is largely the question of whether you can begin engaging the union movement, the social movements, and radical political parties in a new project of organization and challenging capitalism. In an initial sense, I think that's a big question more along the lines of organizing, than per se a reform response to the crisis. It has a lot to do with new forms of attempting to organizing unions and allowing much participation of workers in unions. A whole range of issues is involved there.
 
Within the specific ways there could be policies of reform be put forward now, there's all kinds of things that could be for it in the context of building such a counter movement: one could be arguing for campaign around free public transit, as a way to respond to the crisis in terms of a green alternative that would have the popular resonance among both ecologists and workers and poor people. Work time reduction should be on the agenda as another response. It would be relatively easy to begin campaigns for a crisis tax—that is, a special levy on high-income groups and on the financial sector—and so on. It's easy enough to come up with a range of programs or reforms that we could struggle for. Many of our movements are putting forward some of those across North America, particularly in the major cities where there are a lot of struggles around urban reform and the whole range of housing issues as a consequence of the crisis. The question is really is building a renewed left with a much different political capacity.  
 
Sasha Lilley: Sam, what have been the impediments to organizing a robust labor movement and left under neoliberalism that are obstacles in renewing the left now?
 
Sam Gindin: One of the problems is that the argument that this is no alternative is actually a serious one—that if we don't actually get more radical, it’s hard to imagine alternatives in the middle. One impediment is not wanting to put forth radical demands, thinking that it’s better to be moderate at this time. In other words lowering our expectations. I think that's been a mistake.
 
The other mistake has been to think that we're going to build a movement by always predicting that capitalism is going to decline or that it will fall apart or break down. We have to be able articulate the argument that capitalism is bad even when its working well, that capitalism is now a barrier to human development.
 
And the third thing I think, which relates very much to what Greg was getting at, is we have to understand that under neoliberalism it wasn't just a question of the working class being under attack, but it was also integrated into neoliberalism in certain ways. Significant sections of the working class actually increased their consumption through working longer hours and through debt. They're very much more individualized. Inequality has fragmented the working class.
 
When we think about all those kinds of things, what we recognize is that the working class has been shaped and formed and reformed through neoliberalism. And if we're going to overcome that, we're going to need some kind of organization that actually builds the working class. There's nothing inherently radical about the working class. It just has the potential to be radical. There are all kinds of potentials to mobilize around, from the legitimacy questions you raised, to the volatility in finance that Leo emphasized, to everything that Greg talked about. So the potential is there but the question is how do we actually build the working class into a class.
 
I come back to what Greg said: a critical point is that we recognize that we're fighting capitalism and we recognize how crucial building our own capacities for analysis, for understanding, for acting democratically internally—how crucial that question is.
 
Sasha Lilley: How do we challenge the integration of the working class into capitalism through credit card and mortgage debt? What kind of politics could address that crucial dimension of the position of the working class over the last several decades?
 
Sam Gindin: I think the poor are going to have more trouble getting credit, but the answer shouldn't be to make it easier for them to get credit. The answer should actually be to talk about things like public housing. But for the rest of the working class, I think there's going to be revival of dependency on credit, on pension funds, on trying to survive by retiring later, which there will be a lot of pressure for.
 
Sasha Lilley: Presumably that's already happening. Consumption is up again and presumably that must be consumption based on debt.
 
Sam Gindin: All of this is going to continue and get stronger. I think the kinds of things we have to talk about is actually thinking about breaking out of this by raising issues that may not be on the agenda tomorrow, but if we don't start talking about them now they'll never be on the agenda.
 
One of them is to start talking about nationalizing the banks. Another thing is you can actually look at a specific crisis. If you look what's happened in the auto industry, without the left putting things on the table what unions end up doing is demanding we save our company, we become more competitive, which essentially means: let somebody else be laid off. And the kind of things we have to talk about is to say: the issue isn't about saving the company; it's about saving our productive capacity which can actually make useful things.  It's saving our communities. The issue isn't to be competitive, it's actually to make useful things and start thinking about making democratic planning.
 
And if we link that to the environment for example, if we said that the environment means that everything is going to be changed about how we produce things, how infrastructure works, how we communicate, transportation etc., then the question is why can't we mobilize around plants closing in the auto industry that have the equipment, that have these great skilled workers, and start thinking about using that in a socially useful way and converting it? If you had those kinds of structures in place, you would see workers saying, our company isn't investing or our company is starting to disinvest and move some place else—let's take it over. Let's insist it is converted to some useful ends here.
 
One of the issues we just have to recognize is that there's logic to it. It seems commonsense in a lot of ways. But it isn't going to emerge through unions. Unions are still going to be defensive. They still think in a very sectionalist way—in other words, they represent their members or they represent workers at a particular company. That's why we have to build something that goes beyond the unions. It has to have its feet in the unions as well; unions are still important institutions. But unless we can start thinking about how we build the kind of organization that's really a cultural change and changes expectations and can actually say, this is what we have to talk about and it involves doing something immediately, which will raise contradictions because the other side is going to respond, and then we'll have to think about how we go further. If we can't build those kinds of spaces—which are psychologically crucial, because it makes people feel like they are part of something, that if it isn't going to win tomorrow there's actually a way of fighting back and getting some place—I don't think we can get anywhere. Because people will just return to saying, I have to survive and the way I can survive is by working more hours, going into more debt, hoping the stock market recovers, hoping that they fix this rotten system so that I can benefit from finance, etc.
 
Sasha Lilley: Why you think work-time reduction is important not simply for people's wellbeing but politically? And why you think that it is an achievable demand to make at a time when workers often have very little leverage to shorten their hours at pay that they can survive on?
 
Sam Gindin: That's a terrific question. I think if you look at the formation of the trade union movement, a critical demand was around work-time. I think this is generally true, but I know it's especially true in Canada. The importance of it was that workers actually wanted time to read and to do other things. And I think that's of crucial importance of work-time today. That the workforce has changed. Workers used to be able to be active by exploiting the partner who would take care of the other chores at home. That's to some extent foreclosed right now. If people can't find time to be active and to read and to think and to learn, we can't build a political movement. So politically, reduced work-time I think is one of the most important demands. If the only reason you're getting reduced work-time is so that you can get another job, that’s of course is a different thing.
 
The question of why is it possible: it's only possible by building the kind of movement that can win it. It's possible technically, as we're living through this incredible period of productivity growth. Productivity has been phenomenal. Productivity growth in manufacturing is much higher than it was in the golden 1950s and 1960s. So the technical potentials are there. The question is how you organize for it. That's one question.
 
I think a lot of that means you can't just think about winning this in your own workplace. We don't have that kind of strength. It does mean thinking about how do we actually win these things by building the class in terms of making it a class demand and thinking of the class more broadly, to that we're actually mobilizing the community perhaps in terms of arguing that this about sharing good jobs where that’s the issue. But in terms that this is a general demand—it shouldn't just be for workers who have collective agreements. It should be a general demand.
 
The other thing we have to think about—and is very difficult, but we really have to address it—is that it also poses the question how much do we want consume and what kind of consumption and what we think about our living standards. I'm convinced that if we only think of this in terms of, we want to keep consuming more in the sense of more of the present structure of consumption but have reduced work-time, that we won't go anywhere.  That won't win. We have to think in terms of wanting a different kind of life, where we can enjoy life in all kinds of different ways in terms of public consumption and different forms of consumption. But it can't just be the assumption that we can all just keep having more as individual consumer and have less work-time and have a different life.
 
Greg Albo: It should be actually one of the top things in our demands for addressing global climate change as well, because it has a lot to do with changing consumption. It's probably the most equitable way of dealing with climate change issues.
 
Sasha Lilley: At the start of this crisis, as government stepped into rescue failing banks, you called for the nationalization of the banks, pointing out that such nationalization had partially taken place. At this further phase of the crisis, do you think a renewed left should still champion this demand?
 
Leo Panitch: Yes and I actually think that the condition of achieving everything that Sam and Greg were talking about is in fact that. It's not the only condition of it, but it is a necessary condition of it—necessary in the sense that the decisions about what is produced and what is invested and how its produced and where its invested need to be democratic ones. They need to be made in a social, planned way. That can’t happen unless the portion of the surplus, if I can use that term, that passes through the financial system and gives us the funds for credit in capitalism is transferred to a public decision-making process and a planned one, whereby we use the little extent to which the state is now democratized to begin a process of democratizing the economy—and in that process also much further democratize what we now know as governments or the state.
 
What happened with this financial crisis was there was an enormous opportunity to turn banks into public utilities. Instead we did get the nationalization of some bank—although to some extent we just got public funds put into banks without even a degree of repayment or public control. But we didn't get them changed. On the contrary, when money was put in, governments said we want to be paid back in full, we want the tax-payer to be treated as though he or she was an investor, so we want the highest return possible. Which means that you're pushing the banks to be commercially competitive. In that sense, you could say as someone in the next Socialist Register writes, it wasn't so much the Treasury that nationalized the banks, it was the Treasury that got privatized by the banks, insofar as their interest becomes one of getting a high return for the tax-payer—and then of course giving the banks back to private ownership.
 
That was a tragedy.  It was to be totally expected due to the reasons Sam and Greg talked about in that we didn't have the kind of political alignment that would conceivably have led to what I'm describing taking place—banks being turned into public utilities and the whole process of investment being democratized.  But that is what is needed.
 
It's a lot to take on, but the way we need to link the kinds of demands that Sam and Greg were pointing to with that very much larger issue of taking the banking system into the public domain and democratizing it, is to say we can't really have public transit, and free public transit, unless the state can get hold of at the municipal level at the state, at the federal level, can get hold of those funds that pass as credit through the banking system and transform the uses to which that's put. There's absolutely no reason rationally why we need to think of funding this only through taxation, rather than through the savings that we all are part of. Right now, pension funds are invested in all kinds of things related to financing capitalism. Pension funds, workers savings, we could have a universal pension plan which is directed towards funding government deficits beyond simply the tax system.
 
There are all kinds of ways in which we can make people see how these things are linked. This isn't something out there, nationalizing the banking system. It's something intricately related to the kinds of reconstruction of production, the conversion of production, that Sam was pointing to. That people are going to be able to say, we're not just losing this company, we're losing the enormous resources that these workers have as mechanics, tool and die makers, accountants, teachers, you have it. What we need to do is be able to do is turn the savings of our society towards the kinds of production that is socially useful, rather than is commercially driven, the way it now is.
 
Sasha Lilley: Leo, you've stated that we're possibly living through the fourth crisis of capital in a global sense. What were the other crises and how did their resolutions affect the degree to which capitalism extended itself globally?
 
Leo Panitch: This arguably is the fourth. The first great crisis of capitalism was from 1873-1896, it's often argued. The second was the Great Depression of the 1930s. The third was the crisis of Keynesianism and of profits in the 1970s. And we may be entering the fourth. Each of those crises had different causes and different outcomes. They are not all caused by the same thing and they don't all lead to the same type of outcome.
 
The first one produced an orientation toward internationalizing capitalism, but within the framework of competing capitalist empires. That eventually led to World War One. The second one actually broke down and stopped capitalism’s internationalizing tendencies and you got the kind of beggar my neighbor protectionism that led to World War Two. Out of World War Two, you got the American state in particular becoming the kind of empire that was determined to get the globalizing tendencies of capitalism back on the agenda. It succeeded in that. But that led to contradictions by the 1970s, which ushered in the profit squeeze of the 1970s, partly having to do with the way which workers were strengthened under the commitment to social welfare and full employment reflecting the power of democracy that had developed within capitalism in the 20th century. That then led to, in a sense, workers being too strong for capitalism. And it led to a profit squeeze and was resolved largely through the defeat of the working class, the defeat of trade unionism, and the further expansion of capitalist competition at a global level.
 
This crisis certainly no one could say was caused by workers being too strong. If anything it was caused by workers being too weak—too weak in the sense that they were still very much tied into capitalism, as Sam said, they were trying to be consumers by being indebted consumers. They were trying to look to their retirement by engaging in speculation, whether through their pensions or expecting that their homes would increase in value, the main asset that many workers own in a capitalist housing market. So in a sense, the kinds of contradictions in finance that pertain to the workers’ side of the equation reflected the weakness of workers, their individuation, their fragmentation, their incorporation as Sam said into capitalist finance and capitalist completion.
 
I think that, however, these are very, very contradictory processes and it isn't impossible—and you see in California the evidence of this—for indebted workers and indebted students to rise up and begin to realize what that means for them, what that means for their lives, in terms of having to pay off these debts in a way that keeps them tied in almost as debt slaves to the system. In California, a campaign by students to have their student debt forgiven or to allow there to be no penalties for a default on that student debt would now be a very important element in the kinds of struggles that are taking place in the educational system. But insofar as that were to be viable, it would have to be connected to the much larger issues that I was talking about in terms of economic planning and the taking over of the financial system. And that's a very big political agenda.
 
Sasha Lilley: You three have been speaking about the ways that neoliberalism has made it difficult for workers to organize in their interests, to have the time to engage in radical politics, or politics at all. Looking at the other side of the equation, what are the vulnerabilities that this system has that radicals should exploit?
 
Leo Panitch: There are so many that we could go on talking for weeks and months. The vulnerabilities are of the kind that produced the great unionization movements and the social movements and socialist parties that emerged out of the first crisis from 1873-96. They're the types of contradictions that led people to break with the AFL unions in the 1930s and form the industrial unions that brought in everybody that was in a particular plant, whether they were highly skilled tool and die makers or whether they were janitors into the same organization. They're the same type of contradictions that led to the crisis of the 1970s, being also the moment at which the new social movements were at their height. So there are all kinds of opportunities. And to be very specific the kinds of struggles in which students and teachers are engaging in California provide an enormous opportunity to make connections between the cutbacks that are taking place, the way in which the public sector in California is being made to bear the cost of what was a crisis not at all caused by the public sector, that the link should be made between that struggle and what we've been talking about doesn't seem to me to be too far a stretch.
 
It doesn't at all seem to me impossible that we should be talking today about taking the example of the 1930s and the creation of a new type a trade unionism and, to pick up what Sam was saying, the need for the type of labor organization now, which isn't confined to a given industry but sees itself as a much broader class organization and sees the struggle for free public transit as important to the retention of their jobs—but in the way that would involve the conversion of their workplaces in a massive way. One could look at the suicides in China that recently led to a wage increase being given by Honda in their plant there as part of a much broader set of struggles for a working class that has grown in numbers enormously in this period of neoliberalism.
 
There has been massive proletarianization around the world. One could look forward, it seems to me, to enormously heightened level of class struggle of the kind that would be enervated and encouraged by looking at what's going on in one place and what's going on in another. It's not impossible that the strikes that are taking place in Greece that Greg was referring to can have an exemplary effect. We need to do all we can to make them have an exemplary effect. So, yes, I think there are enormous opportunities. What we need much more of, as Sam was saying, are the kind of organized political forces which can intervene in a productive way to encourage that, to sustain it, to give it a broader focus. As Greg was saying, the old parties, the social democratic parties, the left of the democratic party, etc, and also those old Marxist formations that either were powerful or looked like they might be in the 20th century and have now passed into history—we need to find substitutes and alternatives to them.
 
The anti-globalization movement was a very, very exciting development from Seattle on and hopefully people in it will begin to see that we need more than protests at IMF meetings and more than annual World Social Forums. Those are useful, but we need to organize out of them. They shouldn't be a substitute for building permanent organizations that can contest for power. There's been too much of a tendency in the movements of the last decade to be afraid to do that and to believe that it’s enough to simply protest.
 
Sasha Lilley: There was a very interesting editorial in the Financial Times by the historian of the French revolution, Simon Schama, worrying that this year may be the moment where people go to the streets. He made a parallel with the French revolution and the lag that often occurs between when people are hit by a crisis and when they respond. Just looking around us during this summer, perhaps, of our discontent, there is a crisis unfolding in Europe, which of course looms over the United States and North America, and in the Gulf of Mexico there is an absolutely horrendous oil spill, which is hard to fathom except through the the lends of the profit motive and private capital’s relation to the state. Sam, do you think that there are opportunities now, despite the weakness of institutions of the left and labor, which we might be hopeful about?
 
Sam Gindin: Yes and not just in terms of what’s happening now. This is going to continue. There's going to be more volatility. There's going to be more pressure on people to pay for the exit to this crisis. Insecurity isn't going away. Inequality isn't going away. People see what's happening in the Gulf, they see the kind of resources the state can mobilize when it's trying to save the banks and they can contrast it to the state's intervention in other ways. They're cynical. They're skeptical. I don't think you have to convince people that capitalism is wonderful. You just have to convince them that there is something they can do about it.
 
My sense is that these things explode in unpredictable ways. But then the question is always how do you sustain it. So the opportunities are there and it's encouraging whenever you see a struggle someplace that you can learn from or be inspired by. And then there are local things that are going on. In Toronto we've all been involved in the creation of something called the Greater Toronto Workers Assembly. It was really an attempt to say: let's just not have another protest against the crisis; let's actually talk about the fact that none of the things we do right now in the movements, or in the unions, or on the left actually match what we're up against. And we need to get together on a class-based way that actually speaks to capitalism, that's actually rooted in the community, in a sense of organizing here. We're focusing on a free transit of the class issue. We're focusing on how does the public sector respond in a time of austerity. And we're arguing it can't just respond by trying to get higher wages and isolating itself. It has to actually say: we have to put the level and quality of administration of public services on the agenda and lead in the transformation of public services or we're going to be killed. These things evolve and they're hard to do, but they've got people speaking and finding spaces to address these things. So I'm optimistic, but not in a sense of being ready to predict that it's about to happen. But the opportunities are there definitely.
 
Sasha Lilley: I want to end by asking Greg that same question—what do you see as the opportunities in this moment despite the obstacles that you have laid out?
 
Greg Albo: I think there are four. One is that the American and NATO single war across the Middle East is fracturing in many ways, from Palestine to Afghanistan, through some of the problems in Iraq. So I think some defeats and some even positive movement, particularly in Palestine, will be very positive for the global social justice movement.
 
Secondly, I think the continuing momentum and the breakthrough in the Andean countries as challenges to neoliberalism—not that either Bolivia or Venezuela have managed to break-through neoliberalism, but they have been combining, developing new political forces with anti-neoliberal and anti-capitalist political agendas—is helping to reform the left across the continent of Latin America and it’s a very positive development globally. I would put alongside those the developments that have occurred in both Nepal and Thailand. Obviously the Thai case is very ambiguous in some senses, with the leadership of the Red Shirts, but on the other hand it was an incredibly moving display by peasants and workers in the city demanding democracy.
 
As Leo pointed out, the developments in Europe are still unpredictable. They can still open up from Greece to Portugal with a more radical left putting demands on what is quite clearly an unworkable solution that has so far been put forward in dealing with the Greek crisis. The political momentum developing in Europe is quite unpredictable and could start making some linkages with the fights in France and Britain and Germany as the austerity packages start moving through those countries. So I think that's very positive.
 
I would identify, like Sam, a lot of the developments that are occurring largely in urban cities in North America, both in Canada and the U.S., which are finding new ways to connect organizing with unions with migrant rights struggles and with community fight back initiatives, which I think are forming a different kind of left than we've had for a long time. It's forming a left that is more open for new political initiatives, is more open to longer term organization-building, and I think is breaking from the lock that has been on the left both in Canada and in the U.S. of trying to fight our politics either through the Democratic Party or the some combination of the Liberal Party and New Democratic Party in Canada. I think that's very positive for us being able to build a new left in North America over the next couple or years.
 
 
Greg Albo, Sam Gindin, and Leo Panitch all teach political economy at York University in Toronto and are the authors of In and Out of Crisis: The Global Financial Meltdown and Left Alternatives, published by PM Press. Panitch and Albo are co-editors of the Socialist Register, while Gindin for many years was research director of the Canadian Autoworkers Union. Sasha Lilley is the book’s editor and the author of the forthcoming Capital and Its Discontents: Conversations with Radical Thinkers in a Time of Tumult, out this autumn from PM Press.

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Crisitunity: Review of “In and Out of Crisis”

inandoutby Daniel Tucker
www.miscprojects.com
July 19, 2010
 

Review: In and Out of Crisis: The Global Financial Meltdown and Left Alternatives By Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin, and Greg Albo Publisher: PM Press/Spectre (May, 2010)

Throughout the counter-globalization movement and into the era of the Bush Administration, I tried to wrap my head around a way to simply explain what is meant by the term “Neoliberalism”. I would say to classes, friends, and fellow activists that my take was that “Neoliberalism is characterized by privatization, deregulation of labor and trade and the commodification of more intimate and complex aspects of life than previous eras of capitalism had produced.” But then there was the hassle of explaining the “Neo” part, the confused definitions of “liberal” popularly used in the U.S.,the difference between its theory and its practice (often involving a much deeper and more integral role for government than my simple summary could capture). And then comes the “Great Recession”, also known as the financial crisis of 2007-2010, and everything changes.

It is no longer difficult to plainly see the contradictions of the Neoliberal policies of the last thirty years. Especially the role of the United States government in facilitating the maintenance and consolidation of industrial and financial power despite rhetoric of “deregulation and privatization.” The bail-out plan alone makes it hard to deny and easy to understand that the U.S. State is integral and necessary to the recovery and perpetuation of this global financial mess. Canadian political economists Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin, and Greg Albo explain this in wonderfully clear terms in their latest book In and Out of Crisis: The Global Financial Meltdown and Left Alternatives out last spring on PM Press/Spectre Imprint (the imprint is coordinated by Sasha Lilley of the wonderfully insightful podcast Against the Grain).

This short book compiles several essays, many of which were developed for or inspired by the work of the Socialist Project, an independent socialist network based in Ontario. It is easy to tell that all three authors are educators (they all teach at York University in Toronto) because of their methodical approach to communicating their ideas. Key passages from the book are broken down in the final chapter as “Ten Thesis on the Crisis” which reviews and simplifies the history and analysis presented in chapters like “Surveying the Crisis: Is Neoliberalism Over?”; “Crisis Management from Bush to Obama”; and “Labor’s Impasse and the Left” to name a few. It was written as an educational and organizing tool.

What makes this book stand out besides it’s post-crisis analysis of Neoliberalism is its belief in the renewal of the Left and its deep connection to actually existing social movements. So many Marxist historians and philosophers write as if there is no social movement worth engaging or if there is a shout-out to an organizing effort, it reads as if it was pulled from a hat. These authors have put time and energy through the years in supporting organized labor throughout North America, particularly with the Canadian Auto Workers Union where Gindin was research director. The book presents the clearest explanation of the “Defeat of Labor” which has occurred in recent decades, going beyond simplistic descriptions of deindustrialization to elaborate on the interconnectedness between off-shoring, automation, free-trade policies like NAFTA, stagnant wages, and the integration of workers into the financial sector through pensions and real-estate investments. The trio’s focus is not limited to an exclusively Union way forward, and they repeatedly call for the need to connect organized labor to other social movements to renew working class culture and politics as a step towards creating Left political alternatives to capitalism.

The short 129 pages of In and Out of the Crisis make it a useful tool that could be directed towards busy organizers and activists who literally don’t have the time to dig into anything else. And it’s clearly articulated descriptions of the crisis and possible ways forward make it the most generally useful book to come out of this economic crisis. I hope that it can get used to its fullest potential.

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Spinetingler Falls For Pike

Spinetingler Magazine
July 2010

One of the books that I’ve been looking forward to reading the most this year was Pike by Benjamin Whitmer. It seems that the PM Press folks are running a bit behind schedule with getting their books out on time this year (all speculation btw nothing confirmed) so when the release date of July 1st came and went I did something that I’ve never done before, I ordered an e copy from the publisher, easily downloading a .pdf file within minutes. The main reason I mention this is so you know up front, at least for now, the availability of this book. Because you are going to want to read it.

Over at his blog Benjamin Whitmer said that crime fiction is “supposed to be scary”. He also says that noir isn’t “supposed to be the police procedurals and wisecracking detective serials that dominate the crime shelves” and that they should be something different:

“This is nightmare, hunker-down-in-your-soul, how-deep-can-you-dig, release-the-fucking-bats territory.”

Benjamin Whitmer makes these tenants Bible truth in his debut novel Pike. With this novel Whitmer announces his presence with a kick to the teeth and he is the real deal.

One of the things that strikes me about Pike is the clarity of the writing. It says what it needs to say in the clearest and most direct way possible. The prose is so clear that it enhances the power of the story. Clearly this is a novel that has been carefully gone over numerous times to makes sure there are no snags.

I was reminded of two movies while reading Pike: Unforgiven and The Way of the Gun. I was reminded of The Way of the Gun for a simple reason. Like the movie Pike strives for a level of realism in violent actions and weaponry that feels more blunt and powerful when compared to more stylized offerings. The character Pike will remind some of William Munny from Unforgiven. Like Munny, there is something almost elemental in him, as if he sprung whole from somewhere other, somewhere more powerful. Pike is possessed of a deliberateness in his actions that that adds to this notion of him being more a force then a man – or at least a force of a man.

The three characters are very interesting. Pike as the titular character is the one we get to know the most. We see from his past that he is not a good guy, at all. But there is this barest hint of something approaching decency at this stage in his life. He’s not good, he’ll never be good, but there are a couple of facets of him that aren’t totally bad.

Rory’s past largely defines who he is and his actions. Of the three men he is perhaps the most innocent (to the extent that such a thing is possible) and evokes the most sympathy from the reader. He ain’t no teddy bear though, he’s a violent man addicted to pills and desperately wants to avoid the hellhound he believes is on his trail.

Derrick is a dirty cop with a racist bent. The book literally opens with him shooting an unarmed black man and starting a riot that forces him to leave town. He is a man used to having some modicum of power and wielding it with impunity.

These three men are all scary and violent and its only because of circumstance that you are pulling for Pike and Rory and even then it’s only slight. In another book one could just as easily have been rooting against them. In a bid for a larger audience violence is often times softened by making the characters more palatable or by giving us reasons to justify those actions. Writers are often told to make their characters sympathetic and that is what a reader wants. When a reader identifies with a character the actions that the character takes are justified by the reader. It’s an act of complicity that softens the hard edge. The flip side can be true too. If you make a character easily hated then what drives them becomes unnecessary. In Pike we are asked to bear witness to the actions of these violent men, and to follow their confrontation to the end, whichever end it may be, and we are never asked to forgive them or sympathize with them.

Pike’s journey asks the question, is it possible to have an unrepentant search for redemption, without offering any answer. Even by the end of the book the reader is forced to ask, has Pike changed and if so how much really? His actions would suggest that he hasn’t and if that is the case then that may not bode well for Wendy. Will Pike treat Wendy like he treated his daughter?

Pike may just be the best noir novel that we’ve seen in years, a true black novel if there ever was one. I won’t name names but much of the purported noir class of crime fiction just can’t hold a candle to what is on display here, Pike is hardcore and the real deal all others are pale imitators.

In a just world Pike will salt the Earth and reset the clock for noir in the 21st century, forcing others to re-examine what can be done with the form.

If readers haven’t gotten hip to Switchblade yet they need to. Though their output is slow (2 release a year for the last two years), and they don’t have titles listed for next year that I can tell, they are very much like the Black Lizard of the new century, especially when it comes to finding the new talent that the community hasn’t heard of yet. Especially when you consider the association that Jim Nesbit, Sin Soracco and Barry Gifford have with the publisher.

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Judging Book By Its Cover Long Gone

By Wendy Hornsby
Gazettes
Wednesday, July 21, 2010

In the olden days, children — circa 10 years ago — were all very clear what a book was and what a publisher was. And what a bookstore was.

Books were printed pages sandwiched between tangible covers. The type of cover and the paper inside were indications of the publisher’s opinion of the literary quality of the work.

Hardcovers meant a serious book. A paperback original, not so much, especially compared to a mass-market paperback — reprint of a hardcover. Trade paperbacks were a category of their own, usually the product of small literary publishers or European publishers; they had some cachet. Traditionally, a publisher was housed in a bricks and mortar edifice on the far side of the continent and the editor was a person who was either tweedy or elegant and always knew exactly where to lunch in New York or Boston.

Hardcover books, and sometimes the trade paperbacks, were reviewed in newspapers, were sometimes treated to promotional tours paid for by the publisher, invited to bookstores for signings, or bought by libraries.

And for everyone who couldn’t sell to a publisher, big or small, there was the pay-as-you-go vanity press. These folks got badges from the Rodney Dangerfield Society: “I don’t get no respect,” and a hard time marketing their books beyond friends or family.

Well, kids, times have changed. All the above? Forget about it. Newspapers rarely review books anymore. Instead, reviewers are anyone who wants to post on the web. A long time ago, publishers stopped footing the bill for author tours. Libraries, bless them, are still with us, but you may find as much space there dedicated to computers as to bookshelves, and they will rent you an e-book.

Tell me where in heaven’s name — and what — is your bookstore? Amazon announced this week that it sold nearly twice as many books electronically this year than it did that paper thing Grandma used to decorate her shelves with. A 1:1.8 ratio.

Right now, the real questions are: What is a book? What is a publisher?

Last week, my old friend Gary Phillips was in town, signing an anthology he edited, Orange County Noir, at Apostrophe Books. We talked, as writers always do, about the ever-changing state of publishing.

Years ago, after the 1992 Los Angeles riots, Gary wrote a wonderful hard-boiled mystery that mainstream publishers deemed too political for that incendiary time. So Gary, in the fine tradition of Upton Sinclair, who couldn’t find a publisher for “The Jungle” because of its rough content, or Howard Fast who couldn’t sell “Spartacus” during the McCarthy Era because he was on the blacklist, published it himself. With friends, he started his own publishing company, West Coast Crime, and published “Violent Spring,” and its sequel, “Perdition” as trade paperbacks.

Gary’s West Coast Crime books did well enough that he was signed to a two-book deal by one of the big New York houses. Most recently, Gary’s four-part novella, “The Underbelly,” was “published” online. The expanded, reedited novella, has been picked up by PM Press and will be published next month as a traditional pages-between-covers edition.

He told me, “Today, after having books published by big, small and in-between publishers, what with Kindle, print-on-demand, iPad, Nook and who knows what all else is coming down the pike, the book business is lot different for the writer and the publishers.” I would add, and for the bookstores and the reader. Many new books are, like Gary’s, hybrids that exist online and on the shelf at the same time. The recent publishing experience of our E.E. – Executive Editor – here at Gazettesland, Harry Saltzgaver, is a good example.

After Harry finished his first book, “Passionately Positive: The Beverly O’Neill Story,” he went looking for a publisher. He told me, “I started out by checking for publishers of similar books, leadership-oriented and AA-oriented.” In the end, he decided that because his story was regional — Long Beach — and the book is slender, that his best option was to work with a print-on-demand publisher. After investigating the options, he chose Outskirts Press.

Harry didn’t need an editor — he’s mine, I vouch for him — but he had help with the design and the artwork. The printing, wholesaling and distribution of the book are taken care of by the publisher. Harry maintains all rights in case a big publisher — or Hollywood — comes calling. Because the book is print-on-demand, it comes out in hardcover and trade paperback, and online, at the same time. And it won’t ever end up on a remainder table. Can’t beat that. The book signing tour? That’s Harry’s responsibility. But as it will probably take place in and around Long Beach, where his target market is, I think he’ll manage just fine.

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Should We Abolish Restaurants?


by Brittany Shoot
Change.org

July 15, 2010

Take it from me: working in a restaurant can slowly drain your will to live. I did it on and off for years and take strange pride in knowing I could always fall back on it. (You'd think after grad school, I'd be done worrying about a fall-back plan, but that's what growing up poor and a recession will do to you.)

I can balance an unusual amount of things on my hands and arm while running up a flight of stairs, and I can cut the foil and open a bottle of wine without even looking. I waited on a few celebrities in a Boston bistro and quit a country club waitressing job by leaving a photograph in the pocket of the French maid/pilgrim uniform apron that depicted my gay best friend, standing 6'2" with bleached blond hair, wearing said uniform. I once put an undocumented dishwasher from the kitchen staff at our sushi joint on a bus headed for another state with a Spanish-language Bible and a sack lunch I'd given him for the road. My time in restaurants, as both an employee and a patron, has been as varied and interesting as it gets.

But would I trade all the enriching experiences for something else? Hard to say. I've worked 14-hour shifts on my feet, nearly unable to walk, and developed persistent hacking coughs from being stationed in the smoking section. I've fallen in kitchens enough times to warrant medical attention and face lifelong back problems as a result of ending up flat on my back in a puddle of cola one too many times. I can even attribute an abusive relationship to working in a cafe, since that's where the scumbag picked me up. I've received at least as many tips in the form of change as I have $20 bills from entirely forgettable people who nevertheless took pity on me. Restaurants ... I love you, I love you not.

The new pamphlet from the always informative and thought-provoking PM Press, Abolish Restaurants: A Worker's Critique of the Food Service Industry, makes more widely available a 60-page illustrated guide (pdf) originally published by prole.info. The pamphlet chronicles the history of restaurants from France in the 1700s to what a cafe staff tolerates today: the same songs, the same tacky decorations, the same customers — who, for instance, become so etched in your mind that to this day, I can remember a couple from ten years ago, where they sat and what they ordered.

Also considered are the relationships between aristocracy and personal chefs — and today, seemingly average middle-class families who nevertheless outsource their food preparation, as well as the food service industry's relationship to capitalism, urban growth and the industrial revolution. Most interesting to me are the sections that explore stress and health: how restaurant work comes in waves, rather than a steady rhythm, and how food service employees are almost always forced to eat only when everyone else has been served.

The entire booklet is enthralling, perhaps especially so if you don't already know what goes on behind the scenes for underpaid, non-unionized restaurant workers in the United States. In the end, a restaurant-free world is hypothesized — though to be fair, we've got a number of low-wage jobs to toss out if restaurants are going to get the boot. Still, if you're still not convinced, I'll leave you with the following quote for consideration:

All the restaurants that have had flowery write-ups in the newspaper, that serve only organic, wheat-free, vegan food, that cultivate a hip atmosphere with suggestive drawings, still have cooks, waiters and dishwashers who are stressed, depressed, bored and looking for something else.

Indeed.

Brittany Shoot is a freelance writer, editor and critic. She's one of the editors of the Feminist Review blog and a frequent contributor to a variety of progressive publications. 



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